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In medical terms, pimples is better known as Acne Vulgaris. It is a disease of the skin which chiefly concerns the oil glands which are to be found at the base of hair follicles. It is most common in adolescents when these glands start functioning. The glands become active due to the stimulation received from the male hormones secreted by the adrenal glands of both the genders.

It is not a dangerous condition per se but can potentially scar the skin, a condition abhorred by those in the tumultuous adolescent phase. The oil or sebaceous glands are located beneath the skin and it is connected with the human skin through pores or tiny holes containing follicles or small canals. The function of the sebum or the oil produced by the gland is to carry dead skin cells to the skin’s surface. These follicles are susceptible to being blocked.

Pimples are usually found on the face, neck, shoulders, back and the chest in human beings. The skin cells, the oil-sebum and the hair clump together to form a plug. In time, the plug becomes infected due to the presence of bacteria which results in the swelling. The plug begins to break down and a pimple develops.

Proper examination and treatment plan can control acne and prevent scarring and pigmentation.

ALLERGIC DERMATITIS

ALLERGIC DERMATITIS: The allergic contact dermatitis depends upon the chemical that gets reacted to one’s body and the sensitivity of the skin towards the chemical or product which have that chemical in it. Allergic contact dermatitis occurs when the skin develops an allergic reaction after being exposed to the foreign substance. This causes the body to release inflammatory chemicals and it is only responsible for making the skin to feel itchy and irritated. The first important step thus to control the impacts of the allergic contact dermatitis is identification wherein one needs to search for the product which causes harms to one’s skin. After one identifies the particular product, one should stop using it and if it’s very necessary to use, then one can think of other alternative products so as to ensure safety. It is advisable to contact the skin specialist on the onset of the itching and rashes.

ATOPIC DERMATITIS

ATOPIC DERMATITIS: It is a skin condition that affects many and is common type of eczema. This skin disease causes red rashes that are extremely itchy. The arms, legs and the cheeks are commonly effected. This condition generally starts from childhood itself, mostly in the first few months after birth. This condition can be extremely severe and cause much discomfort. While in some children the condition may improve and disappear as they grow older, in case of other it may just get worse. The condition may improve in later childhood, but can reappear during adulthood as well. AD is more likely to occur in patients who suffer from asthma or hay fever. The exact cause of Atopic Dermatitis is yet unknown, in spite of the extensive research that has been done on it. While the condition is genetic, the reason why it transfers from parents to offspring is not known. Research reveals that about 10% of the population across the world suffer from Atopic Dermatitis at some point in their life.

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: Autoimmune skin diseases are conditions that can affect many parts of your body in addition to your skin. Many of autoimmune skin diseases are rare, complicated to treat, and have a large impact on patients’ quality of life. Autoimmune skin diseases include the following:

    • lupus
    • scleroderma
    • dermatomyositis
    • pemphigus vulgaris
    • bullous pemphigoid
    • morphea

Detailed history, proper examination and specific investigations help us to establish a diagnosis and start the required treatment.

ALOPECIA

It means the partial or complete absence of hair from areas of the body where it normally grows; baldness. Alopecia can be broadly divided into non-scarring and scarring alopecias. Non scarring alopecias include alopecia areata, androgenetic alopecia and scarring alopecia common causes are lupus, lichen planopilaris, morphea. Consultation is advised for proper treatment.

BULLOUS/BLISTERING DISEASES

BULLOUS/BLISTERING DISEASES: Autoimmune blistering diseases are a group of disorders in which the body mistakenly attacks healthy tissue, causing blistering lesions that primarily affect the skin and mucous and membranes. In autoimmune blistering diseases, antibodies erroneously attack proteins that are essential for the layers of skin to stick (adhere) together. The specific symptoms and severity of blistering diseases vary from one person to another, even among individuals with the same disorder. In some cases, blistering lesions can cover a significant portion of the skin. Although there is no cure for autoimmune blistering diseases, they can often be controlled with treatment. In other cases, autoimmune blistering diseases if left untreated can eventually cause life-threatening complications. In recent years, new insight into the causes and development of these disorders has led to research into new therapies such as the development of drugs that target the specific antibodies which cause the symptoms of these diseases.

DANDRUFF

known as Pityriasis Sicca in dermatology. Though dandruff needs no formal introduction yet it is the shedding of dead skin cells of the scalp. Skin cells too die and a little bit of flaking is well within normal boundaries. Scalp examinations are usually used to determine why excessive dandruff is present. After the examination of the scalp, the cause of the condition is most often obvious.

ECZEMA

It is a medical condition which is characterized by rough, cracked, red, itchy and inflamed patches of skin. Sometimes blisters can also occur. Eczema is broad terminology in which various conditions atopic dermatitis, housewife dermatitis, varicose eczema etc are seen. Eczema facts: • Eczema affects the skin functions due to genetic factors, irritated skin, bacterial infection and nutrient deficiencies. • Foods such as like dairy products and nuts can also trigger eczema symptoms. • It can sometimes also be triggered by environment factors like pollen and smoke. • The treatments usually focus on treating damaged skin and reducing the symptoms of eczema.

GREYING OF HAIR

GREYING OF HAIR: Grey hair refers to when your hair loses its natural pigmentation and starts to turn white or grey. It is a process that comes naturally with ageing and can begin anytime in your 30s to 40s. For some people, however, hair can lose its pigmentation prematurely as well. This can be caused to an imbalance in hormones, a problem with the melatonin in your body, or even psychological conditions like stress and grief. Though there are no medical treatments to reverse grey hair permanently, there are many things you can do to bring back the natural pigment.

HYPERHIDROSIS

Excessive sweating is embarrassing, it stains clothes, ruins romance, and complicates business and social interactions. Severe cases can have serious practical consequences as well, making it hard for people who suffer from it to hold a pen, grip a car steering wheel, or shake hands. Consult to know options available to control sweating.

HAIRFALL

It means the partial or complete absence of hair from areas of the body where it normally grows; baldness. Alopecia can be broadly divided into non-scarring and scarring alopecias. Non scarring alopecias include alopecia areata, androgenetic alopecia and scarring alopecia common causes are lupus, lichen planopilaris, morphea. Consultation is advised for proper treatment.

LICHEN PLANUS

It skin disease that is caused due to a deficiency in your autoimmune system. The actual cause for this disease to occur is unknown, however, there are a multiple treatment options that can be recommended for you. Lichen Planus can occur anywhere in the body, though it often occurs on the ankles, wrists, joints, and genital tissues. This disease usually clears up on its own within a few weeks or months, though you can turn to medical treatments to speed up the process of getting rid of it. There are many different treatments to choose from and your doctor will recommend one on the basis of your medical history. Since it causes itching, burning, and general discomfort, seeking treatment can help you gain relief. 

LEPROSY

Mycobacterium leprae is a bacterium which causes a progressive, chronic bacterial infection called leprosy. The nerves in the nose’s lining, the upper respiratory tract and in the extremities get affected by it. Leprosy produces nerve damage, muscle weakness and skin sores. If not treated, it may result in significant disability and severe disfigurement. An infected individual’s mucus can lead to the spread of leprosy. This usually happens when an infected individual coughs or sneezes. The disease is not highly contagious. Close contact repeatedly with someone who hasn’t been treated can cause transmission of leprosy. The bacteria causing leprosy multiply slowly over a long period of time. The disease can incubate for over five years. Symptoms might not show up till 20 years. The World Health Organization has come up with a multiple drug therapy for curing all kinds of leprosy. It is available worldwide for free of cost. Quite a few antibiotics are also available for killing the leprosy causing bacteria. Consultation and accurate diagnosis is the key to the treatment.

MELASMA

MELASMA: Melasma is a common skin problem that is more prevalent in Indian women. The condition causes dark, discolored patches to appear on the skin. Melasma can be due to hormonal changes in the body during pregnancy or from exposure to sun. Hormones stimulate the growth of cells that make brown pigment (melanocytes) and exposure to sunlight stimulates melanin pigments. Melasma causes patches of discoloration on the skin. The brown or grey-brown patches of melasma appear most often on the cheeks, forehead, nose and chin. In some women, melasma often disappears on its own after pregnancy or after an affected woman stops taking the contraceptive pills. Local applications, oral medicines, Laser therapy, chemical peels, dermabrasion etc are effective in removing the darker pigments from the skin and restoring normal skin tone.

NAIL DISORDERS

NAIL DISORDERS: Nail disorder is a condition that affect the appearance of fingernails and toenails. Abnormalities in the nails can be caused by bacteria, fungus or viruses infections, underlying conditions and inherited ailments. Nail disorder can be arised at any age. About 50% of all nail disorders are of infectious origin, 15% are due to inflammatory or metabolic conditions, and 5% are due to malignancies and pigment disturbances. The various diagnosis of nail disorders is often an area of uncertainty. Nail disorders are very common reason for dermatologic consultation. They are checked through clinical inspection, dermatoscopy, diagnostic imaging, microbiological including mycological testing, and histopathological examination. High-risk groups who suffers from nail disorders include diabetics, dialysis patients, transplant recipients, and cancer patients. Some of the common causes of nail disorder are some types of hair loss, such as alopecia areata , anaemia, skin infections (paronychia, ringworm, athlete’s foot), eczema, lichen planus (an inflammatory immune response), psoriasis. Some of the common symptoms include inflammation under and around nails, changes in nail colour, brittle nails, bumpy or grooved nails, split nails, thin nails, ingrown toenail.

ORAL ULCERS

ORAL ULCERS: Mouth ulcers are painful areas in the mouth and gums. They are also known as canker sores. While mostly harmless, mouth ulcers can be extremely uncomfortable and make it difficult for some people to eat, drink, and brush their teeth. Mouth ulcers range in size, and the exact symptoms of the mouth ulcer will depend on what type of ulcer a person has. Causes can be infection, vitamin deficiency, underlying systemic diseases, tobacco/smoking addiction, trauma to oral cavity.

PHOTODERMATOSES

Photodermatitis treatment is required when a person suffers from an abnormal reaction on the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet rays. It can be both, acute or chronic. In such a condition, the sufferer’s immune system reacts to the UV rays and causes a blister, rash or scaly patches on the skin. However, the reaction and exposure level differs from person to person. There are a lot of factors which can make your skin sensitive to UV rays. One can have an inherent problem of photosensitivity. Taking certain medications or getting exposed to certain plants including weed and edible plants like hogweed, cowbane, parsnip, fennel and others can also be a reason. Other factors which can cause photodermatitis are diseases such as eczema or lupus, which make the skin sensitive to light, metabolic and genetic factors and reactions to certain chemicals and drugs. People who are exposed to the UV rays for more than 30 minutes at a time and people with the porphyria condition also have a very high risk of getting photodermatitis. 

PSORIASIS

Psoriasis is one of the most common, persistent and baffling of all dermatological disorders. This illness is characterized by over-multiplication of skin cells up to 10 times faster than normal growth. As dead underlying cells reach the skin’s surface, their voluminous accumulation causes raised, red plaques that gets covered with white scales. This disease typically happens on the elbows, knees and scalp. Psoriasis, can also affect the palms, torso and soles of the feet. Psoriasis, can also at time be found associated with psoriatic arthritis, which leads to swelling and pain in the joints. It is estimated that in India there are 10 to 30 percent of people who have psoriasis also are sufferers of psoriatic arthritis.

PIGMENTARY DISORDERS

They can be genetic or acquired disorders leading to hyper/hypo pigmentation (dark/light color than the normal skin color). Detailed history, examination is the key to the diagnosis and planned treatment protocol helps in restoring the skin color. 

ROSACEA

ROSACEA: Rosacea is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin condition which causes redness on the face and for some, small red bumps and pimples. In Rosacea, persistent areas of redness appear on the cheeks and nose. It may also affect the chin, forehead and neck. Some tiny blood vessels may also be visible on the cheeks and nose. In this condition, the skin often gets very sensitive and may feel dry, rough or swollen. Generally, eating spicy foods, drinking alcoholic beverages too much and having the intestinal bacteria Helicobacter pylori, are counted as the main causes which make rosacea even worse

SKIN INFECTIONS

SKIN INFECTIONS: Skin infections can be categorized as bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections. There are various types of infections with different presentations. These tinfections are mostly contagious, hence prompt consultation is advised. 

URTICARIA

URTICARIA: also known as hives, is an outbreak of swollen, pale red bumps or plaques (wheals) on the skin that appear suddenly — either as a result of the body’s reaction to certain allergens, or for unknown reasons. Hives usually cause itching, but may also burn or sting. Immediate consultation and treatment is advised to prevent systemic symptoms and anaphylactic attacks

VITILIGO

Vitiligo is a disease caused by destruction of the skin’s melanocytes in certain areas of the body. Patients suffering from this disease are seen with white patches in any location of the body. Vitiligo can be localized and focal in one area, or it may be found in different areas on the body. 

WARTS

Warts are types of virus-induced skin growth. The culprit, in this case, is some variants of the HPV or the human papillomavirus. The skin’s top layer is usually affected and the virus makes its way into the body through a patch of broken skin. As a result of the infection, the skin’s top layer experiences rapid growth resulting in what is called a wart. Typically, warts wither away on their own within a span of a few months or years. All parts of the body are susceptible to warts and they are of different kinds too. Common warts are usually found on hands but may occur in other parts of the body too. The feet’s soles are the location for plantar warts, another common type of wart. 

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